R: Passing A Formula To lm

John Mount has a new R tip, this time around passing a formula and seeing that formula later:

This works, and the paste() pattern is so useful we suggest researching and memorizing it.

However the “call” portion of the model is reported as “formula = f” (the name of the variable carrying the formula) instead of something more detailed. Frankly this printing issue never bothered us. None of our tools or workflows currently use the model call item, and for a very large number of variables formatting the call contents in the model report becomes unweildy. We also already have the formula in a variable, so if we need it we can save it or pass it along.

There is a much better place on many models to get model structure information from than the model call item: the model terms item. This item carries a lot of information and formats up quite nicely:

format(terms(model))
# [1] "mpg ~ cyl + disp + hp + carb"

Be sure to check out the comments too, as there are several solutions to this problem.

Lists In R

Dave Mason continues his process of learning about R data structures with a survey of lists:

In previous lessons, we’ve noted vectors and matrices consist of data elements of the same class. R will coerce data elements to a single class if we attempt to create a vector or matrix with data elements of differing classes. Lists, on the other hand, can hold data elements of different classes, such as the integer, character, or logical class. In fact, a list can hold most anything in R, including vectors, matrices, and many more! None to my surprise, lists can be created with the list() function:

And if you want to work with lists, purrr is a great package to learn.

Using JSON In Azure Data Lake Analytics

Jeffrey Verheul shows how to register .NET assemblies in Azure Data Lake Analytics:

The power of Azure Data Lake is that you can use a variety of different file types to process data (from Azure Data Lake Analytics). But in order to use JSON, you need to register some assemblies first.

Downloading assemblies
The assemblies are available on Github for download. Unfortunately you need to download the solution, and compile it on your machine. So I’ve also made the 2 DLL’s you need available via direct download:

Click through for links to the assemblies and instructions on how to register them.  And to continue my long-running joke that every .NET project has as a core requirement Newtonsoft.Json.

Joining Your SQL Server On Linux VM To A Domain

Dylan Gray and Tejas Shah provides some tips on joining a SQL Server on Linux instance to an existing Active Directory domain:

AD authentication is a popular mechanism for login and user authentication. It works very well in many scenarios, especially for enterprise applications. AD authentication is a supported scenario on SQL Server on Linux. Configuring the Linux VM to join with Active Directory (AD) can be a little tricky at sometimes though, especially in a complex enterprise environment.

  • One error message you may see from “realm join” is “realm: Couldn’t join realm: This computer’s host name is not set correctly.” This is due to a generic hostname (e.g. “localhost”), an incorrect domain in your hostname (e.g. “host1.abcd.com” instead of “host1.contoso.com”), or a duplicate hostname on the domain. To fix this, edit /etc/hostname to have a unique hostname and reboot the machine. On Ubuntu, it can also be helpful to put the fully qualified domain name in /etc/hostname (e.g. “host1.contoso.com” instead of “host1”).

 

They provide in this post some of the low-hanging fruit answers, where the problem is in basic server configuration.

Column Order Matters For Indexes

Bert Wagner violates Betteridge’s Law of Headlines:

When beginning to learn SQL, at some point you learn that indexes can be created to help improve the performance of queries.

Creating your first few indexes can be intimidating though, particularly when trying to understand what order to put your key columns in.

Today we’ll look at how row store indexes work to understand whether index column order matters.

Despite the flagrant violation, you should check out Bert’s post, as it’s a good one.

Changing Language In SQL Server

Jeff Mlakar shows how to switch languages in SQL Server:

The SET LANGUAGE command allows us to choose a language for a session. By session here I mean by SPID. Each query tab you open in SSMS is another thread to the database and receives a SPID. This can be called by almost anyone who has permissions to access the database because it only requires membership in the public role to execute.

Now let us change the session language to Russian.

You can change the default language for all sessions, as well as switching language for a specific session.

The Two-Digit Cutoff For Years

Claudio Silva explains why a two-digit year may be interpreted differently in SQL Server versus Excel:

What do you read when you see some date in a format like “01-Jan-00 00:00:00.000”? Keep in mind that I’m talking about the output directly from the table and without any formatting.
1st of January seems to leave no doubt (just because there is no default date format starting with two digits for the year), but…what about the year part ’00’?
It stands for 1900 and the 3rd column is wrong?
Or it stands for 2000 and the DATEPART function is returning the wrong value?

This is why you want to stick with four-digit years.  But if you’re stuck with two-digit years for some reason, Claudio explains how you can get Excel and SQL Server to return the same results.

Network Analysis With Python In Power BI

Tori Tompkins shows us how to use the NetworkX package in Power BI:

The data I used was created to demonstrate this task in Power BI but there are many real-world network datasets to experiment with provided by Stanford Network Analysis Project. This small dummy dataset represents a co-purchasing network of books.

The data I loaded into Power BI consisted of two separate CSVs. One, Books.csv, consisted of metadata pertaining to the top 40 bestselling books according to Wikipedia and their assigned IDs. The other, Relationship.csv, was an edgelist of the book IDs which is a popular method for storing/ delivering network data. The graph I wanted to create was an undirected, unweighted graph which I wanted to be able to cross-filter accurately. Because of this, I duplicated this edgelist and reversed the columns so the ToNodeId and FromNodeId were swapped. Adding this new edge list onto the end of the original edgelist has created a dataset with can be filtered on both columns later down the line. For directed graphs, this step is unnecessary and can be ignored.

Once loaded into Power BI, I duplicated the Books table to create the following relationship diagram as it isn’t possible to replicate the relationship between FromNodeId to Book ID and ToNodeId to Book ID with only one Books table.

Read on for an example using this data set.

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