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Category: Data Lake

Cloning Delta Lakes

Burak Yavuz and Pranav Anand show us how to clone Delta Lakes:

Clones are replicas of a source table at a given point in time. They have the same metadata as the source table: same schema, constraints, column descriptions, statistics, and partitioning. However, they behave as a separate table with a separate lineage or history. Any changes made to clones only affect the clone and not the source. Any changes that happen to the source during or after the cloning process also do not get reflected in the clone due to Snapshot Isolation. In Databricks Delta Lake we have two types of clones: shallow or deep.

Read on to learn the differences, as well as a few useful scenarios.

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Spark SQL in Delta Lake

Kundan Kumarr walks us through some of the basic SQL operations you can perform with Delta Lake in Apache Spark:

Nowadays Delta lake is a buzz word in the Big Data world, especially among the spark developers because it relegates lots of issues found in the Big Data domain. Delta Lake is an open-source storage layer that brings reliability to data lakes. Delta Lake provides ACID transactions, scalable metadata handling, and unifies streaming and batch data processing. It is evolving day by day and adds cool features in its every release. On 19th June 2020, Delta lake version 0.7.0 was released and this is the first release on Spark 3.x. This release involves important key features that can make the spark developer’s work easy.

One of the interesting key features in this release is the support for metastore-defined tables and SQL DDLs. So now we can define Delta tables in the Hive metastore and use the table name in all SQL operations. We can perform SQL DDLs to create tables, insert into tables, explicitly alter the schema of the tables, and so on. So in this blog, we will learn how we can perform SQL DDLs/DMLS/DQL in Delta Lake 0.7.0.

Click through for the examples.

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Raw Data in the Data Lake

Steve Cardella uses wrestling as a metaphor where I would have used sewage:

Raw. Unfiltered. Data. The raw zone – it’s the dark underbelly of your data lake, where anything can happen. The CRM data just body-slammed the accounting data, while the HR data is taking a chair to the marketing data. It’s all a rumble for the championship belt, right? Oh, wait – we’re talking data lakes. Sorry. If the raw zone isn’t where data goes to duke it out, then what is the raw zone of a data lake? How should it be set up?

First, let’s take a time-out to give some context. A data lake is a central storage pool for enterprise data; we pour information into it from all kinds of sources. Those sources might include anything from databases to raw audio and video footage, in unstructured, semi-structured, and structured formats. A data warehouse, conversely, only houses structured data. The data lake is divided into one or more zones of data, with varying degrees of transformation and cleanliness (see this video for more: Data Lake Zones, Topology, and Security). The raw zone is the foundation upon which all other data lake zones are built.

Read on to understand the importance of raw data in a data lake, and the equal importance of making sure end users don’t see that stuff very often. Also, Steve gets bonus points for using my favorite term for the Aristotelian opposite of a data lake: the data swamp.

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Data Lakes for Smaller Projects

Thomas Spicer explains that your data lake doesn’t need to be enormous to be useful:

We recently wrote an article debunking common myths about data lake architectures, data lake definitions, and data lake analytics. It is called What is a Data Lake? Get A Leg Up Avoiding The Biggest Myths.” In that article, we framed the current conversation about data lakes and how they fit within enterprise data strategies. This topic has historically been confusing and opaque for those wanting to get value from a data lake due to conflicting advice from consultants and vendors.  

One area that can be particularly confusing is the perception that lakes are only for “big data.” If you spend any time reading materials on lakes, you would think there is only one type and it would look like the Capsian Sea (it’s a lake despite “sea” in the name). People describe data lakes as massive, all-encompassing entities, designed to hold all knowledge. The good news is that lakes are not just for “big data” and you have more opportunities than ever to have them be part of your data stack.

Click through for Thomas’s argument.

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Working with ADLS Gen 2 in Power Query

Marco Russo takes us through some ways to optimize performance when working with Azure Data Lake Storage Gen 2 from Power Query:

With Power Query you can apply filters to the list obtained by the File System View option, thus restricting the access to only those files (or a single file) you are interested in. However, there is no query folding of this filter. What happens is that every time you refresh the data source, the list of all these files is read by Power Query; the filters in M Query to the folder path and the file name are then applied to this list only client-side. This is very expensive because the entire list is also downloaded when the expression is initially evaluated just to get the structure of the result of the transformation.

A better way to manage the process is to specify in the URL the complete folder path to traverse the hierarchy, and get only the files that are interesting for the transformation – or the exact path of the file is you are able to do that. For example, the data lake I used had one file for each day, stored in a folder structure organized by yyyy\mm, so every folder holds up to 31 files (one month).

Read on for more advice in this vein.

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Storing Streaming Data in Azure Data Lake

Jesse Gorter takes us through writing streaming data from Event Hubs into Azure Data Lake Storage:

In my previous blog I showed how you can stream Twitter data to an Event Hub and stream the data to a Power BI live dashboard. In this post, I am going to show you how to store this data for long term storage. An Event Hub stores your events temporarily. That means it does not store them for later analysis. Say you want to analyze whether negative or positive tweets have an impact on your sales, you would need to store tweets for a historical view.

The question is where to store this data: directly to the datawarehouse, or store it to a data lake? This really depends on the architecture that you want to have. A data lake is often used to store the raw data historically. Is is especially interesting because it allows to store any kind of data, structured or unstructured and it is quite cheap compared to Azure SQL database or Azure SQL datawarehouse. So for that reason, we are going to store it in a data lake.

Jesse walks us through data lake creation and data migration from Event Hubs into a Data Lake Storage container.

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Data Lakes and the Power of Data Catalogs

Ashish Kumar and Jorge Villamariona take us through data lakes and data catalogs:

Any data lake design should incorporate a metadata storage strategy to enable business users to search, locate and learn about the datasets that are available in the lake. While traditional data warehousing stores a fixed and static set of meaningful data definitions and characteristics within the relational storage layer, data lake storage is intended to support the application of schema at read time with flexibility. However, this means that a separate storage layer is required to house cataloging metadata that represents technical and business meaning. While organizations sometimes simply accumulate content in a data lake without a metadata layer, this is a recipe for an unmanageable data swamp instead of a useful data lake. There are a wide range of approaches and solutions to ensure that appropriate metadata is created and maintained. Here are some important principles and patterns to keep in mind. Single data set can have multiple metadata layers dependent on use cases. e.g. Hive Metastore, Apache Glue etc. Same data can be exported to some NoSQL database which would have different schema.

Having a bunch of data isn’t helpful if you don’t know where it is, how it’s formatted, or anything else about the data.

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Good Ideas for Designing Data Lakes

Prateek Shrivastava and Rangasayee Chandrasekaran share some advice on designing data lakes in the cloud:

Data generation and data collection across semi-structured and unstructured formats is both bursty and continuous. Inspecting, exploring and analyzing these datasets in their raw form is tedious, because the analytical engines scan the entire data set across multiple files. We recommend five ways to reduce data scanned and reduce query overheads –

Click through for the details.

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Delta Lake and ACID Properties

Kundan Kumarr notes that Spark’s Delta Lake allows for ACID transactions:

DeltaLog is the crux of Delta Lake which ensures atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability of user-initiated transactions. DeltaLog is an ordered record of transactions. Every transaction performed since the inception of Delta Lake Table, has an entry in the DeltaLog (also known as the Delta Lake transaction log). It acts as a single source of truth, giving users access to the last version of a DeltaTable’s state. It provides serializability, the strongest level of isolation level. Let’s see how DeltaLog ensures ACID Transactions.

Click through for the explanation.

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Data Lake File Formats and Security

Ashish Kumar and Jorge Villamariona continue a series on data lakes:

People from a traditional RDBMS background are often surprised at the extraordinary amount of control that data lake architects have over how datasets can be stored. Data Lake Architects, as opposed to the Relational Database Administrators, get to determine an array of elements such as file sizes, type of storage (row vs. columnar), degrees of compression, indexing, schemas, and block sizes. These are related to the big data oriented ecosystem of formats commonly used for storing and accessing information in a data lake.

It is a bit of a different world and it comes with trade-offs. The whole thing is worth reading.

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