This behavior is noted in the Microsoft documentation for sp_rename:
Renaming a stored procedure, function, view, or trigger will not change the name of the corresponding object name in the definition column of the sys.sql_modules catalog view. Therefore, we recommend that sp_rename not be used to rename these object types. Instead, drop and re-create the object with its new name.
Ok, so we have all been warned, at least when it comes to using
sp_rename. But that is not the end of the story. There is, indeed, another way to change the object such that the definition does not reflect its current state. And that other way has to do with something missing from the examples shown thus far, something that wouldn’t be missing had I been following best-practices.
Click through to see what else doesn’t get updated.