NodeGroup Performance Issues

Babak Behzad explains potential Hadoop NodeGroup performance bottlenecks:

As can be seen in the logs, the localityWaitFactor value is 1, but the delay that this code causes grows linearly with the number of required containers. Since our DFSIO-large benchmark creates 1,024 files, each 1 GB in size, it requests 1,024 YARN containers. Therefore, the code has to miss at least 1,024 scheduling opportunities until it schedules containers on this (wrongly assumed) OFF_SWITCH node.

But why is this delay enforced? This idea falls into a big area of scheduling research. The Delay Scheduling algorithm was introduced by Matei Zaharia’s EuroSys ’10 paper titled “Delay Scheduling: A Simple Technique for Achieving Locality and Fairness in Cluster Scheduling”.

That post is a bit deeper than my Hadoop administration comfort level, but if you’re given the task of performance tuning a cluster, this might be one place to look.

Built-In Query Monitoring Tools

Grant Fritchey describes a couple built-in options for monitoring query performance:

It’s not enough to know that you have a slow query or queries. You need to know exactly how slow they are. You must measure. You need to know how long they take to run and you need to know how many resources are used while they run. You need to know these numbers in order to be able to determine if, after you do something to try to help the query, you’ll know whether or not you’ve improved performance. To measure the performance of queries, you have a number of choices. Each choice has positives and negatives associated with them. I’m going to run through my preferred mechanisms for measuring query performance and outline why. I’ll also list some of the other mechanisms you have available and tell you why I don’t like them. Let’s get started.

This is an intro-level blog post, so Grant doesn’t go into much detail, but he does provide some good links for getting started.

Upgrades And Regressions

Kendra Little explains when upgrades can cause performance to suffer:

The cluster’s servers and SQL Server configurations were built to be as close to identical as possible to the previous instance (memory, cores, disk, maxdop, CTP, etc).

After the migration, I noticed that CPU utilization jumped from the normal 25% to a consistent 75%.

I did several other migrations with similar server loads with no issues, so I’m a bit puzzled as to what might be going on here. Could the upgrade from SQL Server 2008 R2 to SQL Server 2012 simply be exposing bad queries that 2008 was handling differently?

Kendra goes through a number of reasons, building a troubleshooting guide in the process.  This is a great read.

Indexes And Stats

Brent Ozar looks at a case when adding a suggested index monkeys with stats:

The query runs faster, make no mistake – but check out the estimates:

  • Estimated number of rows = 1
  • Actual number of rows = 165,367

Those estimates are built by SQL Server’s cardinality estimator (CE), and there have been major changes to it over the last couple of versions. You can control which CE you’re using by changing the database’s compatibility level. This particular StackOverflow database is running in 2016 compat mode – so what happens if we switch it back to 2012 compat mode?

Based on this result, there might be further optimizations available.  Read on for more of Brent’s thoughts.

When Servers Behave Differently

Grant Fritchey tells a tale of two servers which behave quite differently when running the same query:

Now what?

Well obviously something somewhere is different. Start by comparing everything on both servers and both databases down to… hang on, here, we’ll write a PowerShell script and then….

Wait, wait, wait!

You have the execution plans? Before we start digging through all the properties everywhere and comparing everything to everything, updating statistics 14 times, and all the rest, what if we look at the execution plans. They’re different, so we should start looking at scans & indexes & statistics &….

Wait!

Sometimes, it’s the little things that matter.

Parallel Insertion

Sanjay Mishra and Arvind Shyamsundar show that you can use parallelism with the INSERT INTO [Table] SELECT [Values] construct:

Two important criteria must be met to allow parallel execution of an INSERT … SELECT statement.

  1. The database compatibility level must be 130. Execute “SELECT name, compatibility_level FROM sys.databases” to determine the compability level of your database, and if it is not 130, execute “ALTER DATABASE <MyDB> SET COMPATIBILITY_LEVEL = 130” to set it to 130. Changing the compatibility level of a database influences some behavior changes. You should test and ensure that your overall application works well with the new compatibility level.

  2. Must use the TABLOCK hint with the INSERT … SELECT statement. For example: INSERT INTO table_1 WITH (TABLOCK) SELECT * FROM table_2.

This is a limited use case, but it does sound very useful for large staging table loads or backfills when you can control table access.

Plan Explorer Supports SSMS 2016

SQL Sentry Plan Explorer is now compatible with SQL Server 2016:

We’ve been busy modifying SQL Sentry Plan Explorer so it will work seamlessly with the changed add-in model in the new Management Studio. (As a bit of background, SSMS is now based on the Visual Studio 2015 shell, and some work is required to transition existing add-ins.)

I am happy to announce that, as of today, Plan Explorer 2.8 (build 10.1.94), with add-in support for SSMS 2016, is now available!

Huzzah.  That’s two plug-ins down and two more to go before I’m 100% ready for SSMS 2016.

Using Diagnostics Trace With Power BI

Chris Webb uses Diagnostics.Trace to track process runtime in Power BI:

To sum up, the workflow for tuning your query is:

  • Make some changes to the LongQuery query that hopefully make it faster

  • Update the Trace Message parameter with some notes about which version of the LongQuery query it is that you’ll be testing

  • Click the Refresh Preview button for the Diagnostics query to test how long LongQuery now runs for

  • Refresh, or load, the query that reads the data from the trace logs so you can see how all of your changes have affected query execution times

I give it two months before the Power BI team releases a change to make this easier…

Query Store Or Plan Guide?

Grant Fritchey answers a big question:

While presenting at SQLDay in Wroclaw, Poland, on the Query Store, I was asked a pretty simple question, which takes precedence, the Query Store or a Plan Guide?

One of my favorite answers to questions is “I don’t know” because it gives me the opportunity to learn. Let’s figure this one out together.

I’ll post the code to recreate this experiment within AdventureWorks at the end of the article. I’m doing this because the code for forcing execution plans using Plan Guides can be pretty doggone long (you may need to generate your own XML from a plan on your own system, fair warning).

The answer is not quite as clear-cut as I would have expected, and I’ll be interested to see what others find.

Memory Is The Key

Kathi Kellenberger discusses the importance of RAM to a SQL Server instance:

In order for SQL Server to read and update data, the data must be in the buffer. SQL Server does not work directly with the data in the files on disk. Once the pages of data are in the buffer, they can be used for multiple queries. This means that the data doesn’t have to be retrieved from disk every time it’s needed, thereby decreasing the amount of I/O work required.

You may have seen this yourself when selecting all the rows of a large table twice. The second time, the query can run much faster because the data does not have to be copied from the disk to the buffer. If you run another query from a different large table, it may cause the pages from the first table to be removed to make room. If there is not enough memory, pages will have to be read from disk more frequently causing your queries to be slow.

Even with extremely fast SSDs and flash storage arrays, RAM is still typically an order of magnitude faster, so having enough RAM and using it wisely is critical to a well-functioning SQL Server instance.

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