Andy Levy learns the truth:
For years, I thought that native backups of databases using Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) couldn’t be compressed. Between TDE being limited to Enterprise Edition until SQL Server 2019 and my own lack of experience with TDE in prior positions, I hadn’t really experimented with this myself. Some people have even gone so far as to skip compression in their backup jobs for TDE-enabled databases because there’s no need to burn those CPU cycles if you won’t get any compression, right?
But a curious thing happened after I upgraded a portion of my environment to SQL Server 2019 in late 2020. I observed that scheduled backups were compressing for some of my TDE-enabled databases, most notably the newer instances. And when I took ad hoc backups in any environment, they were compressed. So why wasn’t it working everywhere?
Read on for the explanation, though one correction:
MAXTRANSFERSIZE is 1MB by default only when the database is not encrypted using TDE (and you aren’t backing up to a tape drive). If the database is encrypted using TDE, the default max transfer size is 64KB, and I think that’s what got Andy.