If at any point an automated script fails for some reason, or does not behave as expected, it would be invaluable to have it produce and retain historical logs that could later be investigated for clues as to what it did, and where and why it failed.
Powershell has a few useful cmdlets for this, capable of writing an Output to any sort of destination, such as a log file. For example, Out-File.
However, in my personal experience, nothing beats the level of verbosity offered by a special cmdlet called Start-Transcript.
Read on for an explanation for each part of the template, and then the template itself.