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Dan Guzman shares words of wisdom with using DBCC DROPCLEANBUFFERS for testing query performance in SQL Server:

One can make the argument that DBCC DROPCLEANBUFFERS might not be particularly valuable for testing. First, the storage engine in SQL Server Enterprise Edition (or Developer Edition, which is often used when testing) behaves differently with a cold cache versus a warm one. With a warm cache, a page not already in cache (e.g. index seek by primary key) will be fetched from disk using a single 8K page IO request as one expects. However, when the cache isn’t fully warmed up (Buffer Manager’s Target Pages not yet met), the entire 64K extent (8 contiguous 8K pages) is read for the single page request regardless of whether the adjacent pages are actually needed by the query. This has the benefit of warming the cache much more quickly than would otherwise occur, but given that the normal steady state of a production SQL Server is a warm cache, testing with a cold cache isn’t a fair comparison of different plans. More data than normal will be transferred from storage so timings may not be indicative of actual performance.

I don’t think I agree 100% with that argument, but I am sympathetic to it.  Still, Dan has great advice in this post.