rqueryis based on an appreciation of Codds’ relational algebra. Codd’s relational algebra is a formal algebra that describes the semantics of data transformations and queries. Previous, hierarchical, databases required associations to be represented as functions or maps. Codd relaxed this requirement from functions to relations, allowing tables that represent more powerful associations (allowing, for instance, two-way multimaps).Codd’s work allows most significant data transformations to be decomposed into sequences made up from a smaller set of fundamental operations:

- select (row selection)
- project (column selection/aggregation)
- Cartesian product (table joins, row binding, and set difference)
- extend (derived columns, keyword was in Tutorial-D).
One of the earliest and still most common implementation of Codd’s algebra is SQL. Formally Codd’s algebra assumes that all rows in a table are unique; SQL further relaxes this restriction to allow multisets.

rqueryis another realization of the Codd algebra that implements the above operators, some higher-order operators, and emphasizes a right to left pipe notation. This gives the Spark user an additional way to work effectively.

They include a fairly lengthy example and give a great introduction to the tool. It’s now officially on my list of stuff to try out.

Kevin Feasel

2018-07-27

Hadoop, R, Spark