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Category: Hadoop

Operational Database Security in Cloudera Data Platform

Liliana Kadar, et al, walk us through some of the database security and auditing features in Cloudera Data Platform:

Database object-level security is available through the centralized authorization framework of Apache Ranger. 

Both fine-grained access control of database objects and access to metadata is provided. Protected database objects include: database, table, column, view and User Defined Functions (UDFs). 

Fine-grained access control for special administrative operations that can be performed on OpDBMS is also supported. 

Click through for the full story.

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Key Metrics for Kafka Monitoring

Preetdeep Kumar shares three metrics which are important for monitoring Kafka clusters:

There are 100s of metrics documented as part of Kafka monitoring out of which CPU, Memory, Disk, and Network related metrics are always useful in monitoring any systems. In this article, I share 3 metrics that I found to be very useful from a development point of view, saved us some time while triaging a few corner cases reported by customers.

Click through for those measures.

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Connecting to Azure Databricks from Power BI

Gerhard Brueckl walks us through the Power BI connector to Azure Databricks:

I work a lot with Azure Databricks and a topic that always comes up is reporting on top of the data that is processed with Databricks. Even though notebooks offer some great ways to visualize data for analysts and power users, it is usually not the kind of report the top-management would expect. For those scenarios, you still need to use a proper reporting tool, which usually is Power BI when you are already using Azure and other Microsoft tools.

So, I am very happy that there is finally an official connector in PowerBI to access data from Azure Databricks! Previously you had to use the generic Spark connector (docs) which was rather difficult to configure and did only support authentication using a Databricks Personal Access Token.

Click through to see how it works.

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The Session Window in Flink

Kundan Kumarr continues a series on windows in Apache Flink:

In the real world, all the work that we do online- Visiting a website, Clicking around the website, do online transactions, and so on are in sessions. We might just go to an e-commerce website like amazon, looking for products, clicking around for a bit, and then stop. All is done within a session. There is a use case where these websites may want to track pages that we visited in a single session. For that, it needs to group all clicks together which are streaming in, based on a session. These streaming use cases can be implemented easily by Flink Session window.

The Session windows assigner groups elements by sessions of activity. Session windows do not overlap and do not have a fixed start and end time. The number of entities within a session window is not fixed. Because it is a user who defines typically how long the session would be. A session window closes when it does not receive elements for a certain period of time, i.e., when a gap of inactivity occurred. For example, once we have been idle on the amazon website let say for 1 minute that is the end of the previous session and if go back to the site after 1 sec it will start a new session. The way it would determine the session is the pause between one click and another click.

Click through for a depiction and an example.

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From Kafka Into Azure Data Explorer

Anagha Khanolkar walks us through a data movement scenario:

Here is an end-to-end, hands-on lab showcasing the connector in action. You can see an overview of the lab below. In our lab example, we’re going to stream the Chicago crimes public dataset to Kafka on Confluent Cloud on Azure using Spark on Azure Databricks. Then, we will use the Kusto connector to stream the data from Kafka to Azure Data Explorer.

There’s also a lab to try this out, though the estimated spend is a bit high.

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Finding Skew in a Spark DataFrame

Landon Robinson walks us through skew in Spark DataFrames:

Ignoring issues caused by skew can be worth it sometimes, especially if the skew is not too severe, or isn’t worth the time spent for the performance gained. This is particularly true with one-off or ad-hoc analysis that isn’t likely to be repeated, and simply needs to get done.

However, the rest of the time, we need to find out where the skew is occurring, and take steps to dissolve it and get back to processing our big data. This post will show you one way to help find the source of skew in a Spark DataFrame. It won’t delve into the handful of ways to mitigate it (repartitioning, distributing/clustering, isolation, etc) (but our new book will), but this will certainly help pinpoint where the issue may be.

Click through to learn more.

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Cloning Delta Lakes

Burak Yavuz and Pranav Anand show us how to clone Delta Lakes:

Clones are replicas of a source table at a given point in time. They have the same metadata as the source table: same schema, constraints, column descriptions, statistics, and partitioning. However, they behave as a separate table with a separate lineage or history. Any changes made to clones only affect the clone and not the source. Any changes that happen to the source during or after the cloning process also do not get reflected in the clone due to Snapshot Isolation. In Databricks Delta Lake we have two types of clones: shallow or deep.

Read on to learn the differences, as well as a few useful scenarios.

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The Count Window in Flink

Kundan Kumarr takes us through an example of the count window type in Apache Flink:

In the blog, we learned about Tumbling and Sliding windows which is based on time. In this blog, we are going to learn to define Flink’s windows on other properties i.e Count window. As the name suggests, count window is evaluated when the number of records received, hits the threshold.

Count window set the window size based on how many entities exist within that window. For example, if we fixed the count as 4, every window will have exactly 4 entities. It doesn’t matter whats the size of the window in terms of time. Window size will be different but the number of entities in that window will always be the same. Count windows can have overlapping windows or non-overlapping, both are possible. The count window in Flink is applied to keyed streams means there is already a logical grouping of the stream based on all values associated with a certain key. So the entity count will apply on a per-key basis.

I’m curious if there’s a combination of count + time, triggering when you hit X elements or Y seconds, whichever comes first.

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Renaming Cached DataFrames in Spark

Landon Robinson works around an annoyance:

But DataFrames have not been given the same, clear route to convenient renaming of cached data. It has, however, been attempted and requested by the community:

However, with the below approach, you can start naming your DataFrames all you want. It’s very handy.

Read on to see the solution in action.

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A Kafka Alternative for Message Prioritization

Ricardo Ferreira explains why Apache Kafka doesn’t support message prioritization and gives a second-best solution when you do need it:

Users of messaging technologies such as JMS and AMQP often use message prioritization so that messages can be processed in a different order based on their importance. It doesn’t take much imagination to see where this can be useful—call center companies will want to handle the most severe cases first, then others; airline companies give preference to their service treats to customers with higher status, and telecommunication companies would probably give their most loyal customers a better renewal promotion.

One of the misconceptions that developers have when they first encounter Apache Kafka® is that it is just another messaging system, just like the ones they’re familiar with. By extension from that, they get disappointed when they find that Kafka doesn’t offer message prioritization.

Read on for the answers.

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