In this (admittedly thoroughly made-up though not entirely implausible) network diagram, the test score outcome is a collider, influenced by a test preparation class and socio-economic status (SES). In particular, both the test prep course and high SES are related to the probability of having a high test score. One might expect an arrow of some sort to connect SES and the test prep class; in this case, participation in test prep is randomized so there is no causal link (and I am assuming that everyone randomized to the class actually takes it, a compliance issue I addressed in a series of posts starting with this one.)
The researcher who carried out the randomization had a hypothesis that test prep actually is detrimental to college success down the road, because it de-emphasizes deep thinking in favor of wrote memorization. In reality, it turns out that the course and subsequent college success are not related, indicated by an absence of a connection between the course and the long term outcome.
Read the whole thing. H/T R-Bloggers