The App01 database was in SIMPLE recovery (when I find this in the wild, I always question it – isn’t point-in-time recovery important? – but that is another discussion). The relevance here is that in SIMPLE recovery, LOG backups are irrelevant (and actually *can’t* be run) – once a transaction or batch completes, the LDF/LOG file space is marked available for re-use, meaning that *usually* the LDF file doesn’t grow very large.
A database in SIMPLE recovery growing large LDF/LOG files almost always means a long-running unit of work or accidentally open transactions (a BEGIN TRAN with no subsequent CLOSE TRAN) – looking at the errors in the SQL Error Log the previous night, the 9002 log file full errors stopped at 1:45:51am server time, which means the offending unit of work ended then one way or another (crash or success).
Sure enough when I filtered the XEvents event file to things with a duration > 100 microseconds and then scanned down to 1:45:00 I quickly saw the row shown above. Note this doesn’t mean the unit of work was excessively large in CPU/RAM/IO/etc. (and in fact the query errored out due to lack of LOG space) but the excessive duration made all of the tiny units of work over the previous 105 minutes have to persist in the transaction LDF/LOG file until this unit of work completed, preventing all of the LOG from that time to be marked for re-use until this statement ended.
It turns out that deleting millions of records in a single transaction is an expensive operation.