Justin Goodwin shows how to view Always Encrypted data from within Management Studio:
I am now able to view the encrypted data. Why is this?
Because I am connecting to the database from the database server, I have access to the Encryption Certificate that was generated. I can verify this by opening certmgr.msc and browsing to Personal -> Certificates:
Justin then goes on to show what happens when you don’t have access to the certificate and how to provide access to another machine.