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Category: Security

Database Audit Specifications Creating Users

Kenneth Fisher asks, who audits the auditors?:

I love database audits. They are simple, easy to use, effective, not overly resource intensive, and can be turned on and off at need once created. That said, they do have a few gotchas. If you want every user put public as the principal. And if you don’t, and you put in an AD user, be aware that if that user will be created (along with a matching schema) when you create the Database Audit Specification.

Read on for Kenneth’s experience and a way to clean up these potentially-added users.

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Cumulative Updates and GDRs

Aaron Bertrand clarifies two concepts:

The underlying problem is that servicing complex software is, well, complex. Microsoft simplified this for our little corner of the world when they announced that SQL Server 2016 would be the last release to get service packs. We still have Cumulative Updates (CUs) and General Distribution Releases (GDRs) to deal with, but they tend to only cause confusion around Patch Tuesday (or the – cough – odd time a CU breaks things). Before I explain, let’s define these:

Read on for the definitions and why the GDR path exists.

Wait, I thought the German Democratic Republic (GDR / DDR) re-unified with the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG / BRD) in 1990… Ah, the lengths I go to for an awful joke.

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Connecting to Azure SQL DB over VPN

Reitse Eskens has some routing issues:

To make sure the on-premises connection uses the VPN and the private endpoint, we need to make sure the on-premises DNS (it’s always DNS) recognizes the traffic and redirects it to the VPN connection. But whatever we tried on the firewall, the traffic kept going the wrong way. It did have something to do with the on-premises DNS setup in the end.

When we tried to connect to the Azure SQL instance on IP-address, it threw an error because the instance wasn’t found. You can only connect to it with the FQDN (dbname.database.windows.net)

Click through to see what the problem was and how Reitse solved it.

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Working with xp_cmdshell

Hadi Fadlallah takes us through xp_cmdshell:

In brief, xp_cmdshell is a system stored procedure in SQL Server. It allows executing Windows shell commands from the SQL Server environment. While commands are passed as an input string, the shell’s output is returned as rows of text.

The xp_cmdshell takes two parameters; one required and one optimal:

Hadi does a good job of showing us what security is in place protecting malicious use of xp_cmdshell and how you can add a person to the list of users.

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Exporting Power BI Row-Level Security Details

Gilbert Quevauvilliers needs a report, stat!:

In a previous tweet on twitter, I had elaborated on how I had extracted the RLS Roles with the details and then exported it into a CSV file which then allowed the organization to keep an audit of the RLS for the dataset.

In the steps below I will show you how I did this.

In my previous blog post I explained how to export data from a Power BI report to a CSV file here: Exporting a Power BI Visual data to a CSV File in SharePoint

Read on to see how, as well as a few notes on what it takes to get this report.

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Operating Power BI Desktop as a B2B User

Meagan Longoria shares some notes:

I noticed Adam Saxton post a tip on the Guy in a Cube YouTube channel about publishing reports from Power BI Desktop for external users. According to Microsoft Docs (as of June 21, 2022), you can’t publish directly from Power BI Desktop to an external tenant. But Adam shows how that is now possible thanks to an update in Azure Active Directory.

Click through for the sign-in process as well as what you can do and the pitfalls you might run into along the way.

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Creating a Self-Signed Certificate in Powershell

Tom Collins says ‘trust me’:

Use the Powershell cmdlet New-SelfSignedCertificate

Warning: I only ever use this method for testing purposes – never use for Production environments. A typical test would be for  SQL Server Network Encryption SSL Certificate Management

Encryption strategy  should be part of a wider review of Database Security Countermeasures against hacker attacks

For more details check the Microsoft documentation but here are some notes on some of the parameters  attached to the Powershell cmdlet – New-SelfSignedCertificate.

Read on to see how you can create the certificate and use it in SQL Server. Connections will complain (and rightfully so) about the self-signed certificate but you’ll be able to try functionality which requires a certificate in an environment in which you don’t have one available for whatever reason.

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Refreshing SQL Managed Instances which Use TDE

Bradley Ball keeps the dev environment up to date:

Hello Dear Reader!  I was working with some friends lately and we needed to set up a process to refresh their Development Environment databases from Production.  Additionally, the databases are encrypted using Transparent Data Encryption, The SQL MI instances are in different regions, and the SQL MI Instances are in different subscriptions.  To duplicate the environment, in order to match our friends, we did the following setup.

Click through for a high-level overview, step-by-step guidance, and a whole lot of detail.

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Tracking Table Updates via SQL Audit

Tracy Boggiano wants to figure out who keeps taking her lunch out of the company refrigerator:

I had a problem at work recently where a record was getting updated, and no one knew where or what was updating the record.  Our team discussed the best way to try to figure out what was happening.  The situation was if a record would be updated to active and within a ten-minute window, the record would be set back to inactive.  The system allows ad-hoc statements to run against and since it was to only a certain table, I suggested we set up a SQL Audit to track UPDATEs to the table.  The code for this is fairly simple, but since most of my colleagues don’t have exposure to SQL Audit, I figured a blog post would benefit others.

So, in this case, we are creating a Server SQL Audit that will write to D:\SQL Audit, so make sure that path exists.  Then a Database Server Audit Specification to track any UPDATEs that happen to the table.  Now, keep in mind I choose the method over running a server-side Trace or Extended Events because I knew it would capture everything without me having to worry about setting up anything else put these commands.  An important part of this is where I specify “public”.  That tells the audit to capture anybody that is updating the table.  If you want to look for a certain user or even maybe someone part of a role, you could specify that instead.

Click through for the auditing script. I wish this type of information were a lot easier to get, especially for longer-term audits. I end up creating metadata columns (created/modified user, created/modified date) but that gives limited information and requires all calling code play along.

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