Starting with SQL Server 2016, additional checks on filtered indexes, persisted computed columns, and UDT columns will not be run by default to avoid the expensive expression evaluation(s.) This change greatly reduces the duration of CHECKDB against databases containing these objects. However, the physical consistency checks of these objects is always completed. Only when EXTENDED_LOGICAL_CHECKS option is specified will the expression evaluations be performed in addition to already present, logical checks (indexed view, XML indexes, and spatial indexes) as part of the EXTENDED_LOGICAL_CHECKS option.
For filtered indexes, CHECKDB has also been improved to skip records that do not qualify as being indexed by target NC index.
This is telling me that we’ll want to have two separate CHECKDB processes, one which regularly runs CHECKDB (or CHECKTABLE) and one which occasionally runs CHECKDB with EXTENDED_LOGICAL_CHECKS.