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DOP Feedback in SQL Server 2022

Kate Smith points out a new feature in SQL Server 2022:

In SQL Server 2022, we introduced a new feature called DOP feedback. This feature will look at any parallel query and determine if it might perform better with a lower degree of parallelism than currently being used. For example, perhaps 16 threads will perform better than 20 if there are a lot of waits on other threads. It will test out the new degree of parallelism and, either decide that this was a good change and keep the 16 threads, or it will revert to previous levels of parallelism and go back to 20 threads. If the new degree of parallelism is good, then this optimization is persisted inside the query store and will be applied appropriately to a query for future executions. 

Read on for an overview of how it works and what protections are in place to keep it from going completely bonkers. Well, more completely bonkers than what you already have.