Holger Linke troubleshoots some problems:
The tempdb system database is a global resource available to users who are connected to Azure SQL Database or any instance of SQL Server. It holds temporary user objects that are explicitly created by a user or application, and internal objects that are created by the SQL Server database engine itself. The most common tempdb issue is running out of space, either regarding tempdb’s overall size quota or the transaction log.
The available tempdb space in Azure SQL Database depends on two factors: the service tier (pricing tier) that the database is configured with, and the type of workload that is executed against the database. These are also the main factors to control if you are running out of tempdb space.
Click through for several error cases and how we can resolve them.