Tom Collins summarizes places where AWS Relational Database Services (RDS) for SQL Server differs from the box product:
Some AWS RDS SQL Server limitations
– Some ports are reserved for Amazon RDS, and you can’t use them when you create a DB instance.
– Amazon RDS for SQL Server doesn’t support importing data into the msdb database.
– You can’t rename databases on a DB instance in a SQL Server Multi-AZ deployment.
– AWS RDS doesn’t support Data Quality Services and Master Data Services on the same RDS service, need to spin up an EC2 and run services form another server
Read on to see more limitations, notes on how security is different, and notes on feature support. Do keep in mind, though, that some of these may change over time—a few years back, the number of limitations was much greater.