First, you need to be running CHECKDB on a regular basis. If you’re going to ask what you mean by regular basis, I’ll direct you to a post of Paul’s that is still relevant: Importance of running regular consistency checks. There are a few factors to consider, but in general I recommend at least once a week. If you’re a 9 to 5 shop and have the maintenance window to run CHECKDB daily, feel free to do that.
Erin walks us through it and also recommends checking out Ola’s scripts for integrity checks. I’d add to that Minion CheckDB.