With SQL Server 2019, we introduced support for replication and CDC features for SQL Server on Linux by bringing in relevant components and subsystems within SQL Server core engine package. This support includes Snapshot replication, Transactional replication and CDC. Peer-to-peer transactional replication, merge replication and Oracle publishing are not supported.
Today we are glad to announce that we have brought the replication and CDC features to SQL Server 2017, starting with Cumulative update 18 (CU18).
Tejas has a few links, but the key is just to update your server (or spin up a new Docker container with the latest CU and swap external database files over to it).