Kevin Chant looks at each of the supported distributions for installing SQL Server on Linux:
Another key point is that even though SQL Server on Linux is supported on various distributions SQL Server can be installed on other distributions instead.
Although I would only advise this for testing purposes only because SQL Server would not be supported by Microsoft on these other distributions.
In reality, you can probably install SQL Server on more diverse distributions than the ones listed. However, I have focused on the main ones below.
As Kevin points out, there’s a difference between “working” and “supported.” If you’re futzing about with a dev database or trying to learn the platform, go ahead and install it on Elementary or some other unsupported distro. But if you have a production issue, the fact that you installed SQL Server on an ancient version of Slackware may win you plaudits but won’t get you support.