Broadcast VariablesBroadcast variables allow the programmer to keep a read-only variable cached on each machine rather than shipping a copy of it with tasks. They can be used, for example, to give every node a copy of a large input dataset in an efficient manner. Spark also attempts to distribute broadcast variables using efficient broadcast algorithms to reduce communication cost.Spark actions are executed through a set of stages, separated by distributed “shuffle” operations. Spark automatically broadcasts the common data needed by tasks within each stage. The data broadcasted this way is cached in serialized form and deserialized before running each task. This means that explicitly creating broadcast variables is only useful when tasks across multiple stages need the same data or when caching the data in deserialized form is important.
There’s some good stuff on accumulators and the SparkSession object in there as well.