Marek Masko shows us how to read through the transaction log to understand a data change operation:
Another solution that can be used to track changes executed against your database is to read Transaction Log file or Transaction Log Backups. Transaction log file (and backups) consists of every transaction executed against your database. The only requirement for this is to have a database in the Full recovery model. In the Simple recovery model, every committed transaction can be very quickly overwritten by another one.
Also, this is something that you get for free without the need to enable and configure any additional SQL Server functionality. Of course, besides the database backups, but you already do database backups, right?
To test this approach, you have to make some preparations. You need to set the database’s recovery model to Full. As a first step, check database properties to ensure that it is appropriately configured. As a second step, you need to create a full database backup. From this point, the database is in Full recovery model, and every transaction is fully logged. Thanks to this you are able to read logged transactions from Transaction Log file. The same applies to read from Transaction Log backup. To do this, you need to create such a backup after you execute database schema changes.
I think I’ve only done this once or twice, but it’s a good technique to know about.