Lea Waniek walks us through coordinate systems in `ggplot2`

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The coordinate system can be manipulated by adding one of ggplot’s different coordinate systems. When you are imagining a coordinate system, you are most likely thinking of a Cartesian one. The Cartesian coordinate system combines x and y dimension orthogonally and is ggplots default (

coord_cartesian).There also are several varaitions of the familiar Cartesian coordinate system in ggplot, namely

coord_fixed,coord_flipandcoord_trans. For all of them, the displayed section of the data can be specified by defining the maximal value depicted on the x (xlim =) and y (ylim =) axis. This allows to “zoom in” or “zoom out” of a plot. It is a great advantage, that all manipulations of the coordinate system only alter the depiction of the data but not the data itself.

I tend to avoid polar coordinates, but that’s mostly because I don’t work in a space which benefits from it.