As you can see the second query is much slower and the extra value in the IN caused late filtering. This is a limitation on some types of operators such as this clustered index scan.
There isn’t just a limitation of 15 input values. There’s also one at 64. On the 65th input value the list will be converted to a constant scan which is then sorted and joined. Most interestingly enough is that the list in my demo query is already sorted ascending.
Read the whole thing.