Jefferson Elias describes the concept of trusted foreign keys as well as their analog:
Specifying WITH CHECK in a statement tells to SQL Server the user wants it to validate the constraint against every single row in the table, then, if successful, enable it.
In contrast, specifying WITH NOCHECK, which is the default for an existing constraint, means that the constraint is enabled but no validation has been made on it. Even if this mode is faster to run, it can lead to severe side effects on performance: SQL Server doesn’t trust the constraint as it has not validated it. We refer to such a foreign key as an « untrusted foreign key ». As a consequence, the query optimizer won’t use the constraint to do his job…
There are benefits to having trusted foreign key constraints. Check out the article for more details as well as how to fix this issue.