Restoring To A Specific Time

Derik Hammer shows one of the most useful features of database restores:

In order to restore point-in-time, you need to restore the full backup with NORECOVERY. This tells SQL Server not to initiate crash recovery which is a process that performs the redo and undo operations on your database to roll back the uncommitted transactions and roll forward the committed ones.

Once the full backup is restored you will need to restore the rest of the LSN (log sequence number) chain in the appropriate order. If you are not using differential backups, this means that you need to restore each log file until you cover the point-in-time that you are targeting. If you do have one or more differential backups, just restore the most recent differential which was taken before your target point-in-time and then all log backups between then and the target.

Derik also discusses restoring to marked transactions, something I’ve never used before but which could be very useful for known, major changes (like database code rollouts).

Bacup With NORECOVERY

Robert Davis explains the NORECOVERY option when running a backup (rather than restore) command:

NORECOVERY applies only to log backups. When you run a log backup with NORECOVERY it takes the normal log backup and it also puts the database into a restoring state. This means that absolutely no transactions can run in the at database that isn’t covered by the log backup. At least not until someone recovered it. So is a scenario coming clear where that might be helpful? Think migrations.

Read on for more details.  It’s not something you’ll probably do frequently, but knowing it may make a future operation smoother.

Upgrading Backups

Steve Jones explains that you can restore most backups to a later version, but can never restore to an earlier major version:

I would hope that most people know that a SQL Server database backup has a version. This version corresponds to a version of SQL Server, and for the most part, we can’t restore a database backup to an earlier version of SQL Server. Some exceptions might be a similar CU version there the database format hasn’t changed, but certainly not to any prior Service Pack.

However, can you restore to a later version? Can I take a SQL Server 2012 database backup and restore it to a SQL Server 2016 instance? Sure I can. In fact, lots of people upgrade their systems this way. Install a new SQL Server instance, take a backup on the old version and bring it forward. In fact, you can restore (or attach) a SQL Server 2005 database backup on SQL Server 2016.

Read on for more details and caveats.

Use Backup Compression

Thomas Rushton advocates for enabling backup compression:

SQL Server backup compression – does what it says on the tin. Instead of SQL Server taking a backup by reading pages / extents of data from the database file and writing them out to the backup file, it compresses the data before it writes. It’s not the best compression you’ll get, as it won’t read the entire file before compressing it; however, it’s good enough that on OLTP databases that contain normal varchar / numeric data you could see savings of over 75% – indeed, I have some databases that save 90% of disk space. And that’s made my storage guys happy. Well, less unhappy.

One side note:  if you’re also encrypting backups (available in the product since SQL Server 2014), encryption happens after compression, so you can take advantage of both.

It’s Not Just Backups

Dave Mason looks at alternatives to restoring databases:

Database Snapshots

A snapshot creates a read-only static view of a source database. With a snapshot, DML statements can be run on the source database and the snapshot database will preserve the original data. The snapshot can be used to “undo” data changes in the source database. There’d likely be more T-SQL/scripting work involved than a simple database restore. However, a snapshot has less “overhead” than a backup (at first). As noted in the MSDN documentation, “As the source database is updated, the database snapshot is updated. Therefore, the longer a database snapshot exists, the more likely it is to use up its available disk space.” In addition, there are prerequisites for and limitations on database snapshots.

Restoring a database backup should be easy, but it might also tell you that there was a failure somewhere.  If you’re regularly restoring backups because of data entry issues, then it might make sense to keep a history of the data so you have tools to fix issues short of the nuclear option.

Restoring Multiple Differential Backups

Kenneth Fisher crashes his own T-SQL Tuesday party:

This has led to the belief (or at least I believe this is one of the causes) that you can only restore a single differential backup. And up until the last few weeks I’d believed that myself. So, to set up a fairly simple test. I’m going to take a backup, create a table, and make some changes with differential backups in between the changes.

Check it out.  I don’t really see a good case for restoring multiple differentials (because each differential has the complete set of changes since the last full backup, so the differential at X+t is a proper subset of X+2t if your goal is to restore back to X+2t), but having multiple differentials, absolutely.

Multi-Tenant Database Backups

Kennie Nybo Pontoppidan thinks about multi-tenant databases in Azure and how you might back them up:

Backup-restore is not directly supported by standard methods in SQL Server/Azure SQL database. One possible way to backup a tenant could be to have a script, which could bcp data to text files. Restore could similarly be a script, which could bcp from txt files to tables in the destination database. Both scripts could be auto-generated from tenant metadata. If the schema for a tenant has 100 tables, the number of tables in a database in this model grows quickly, and the administrative cost of maintaining scripts and tenant metadata could be high. As a side note, no query execution plans can be reused across tenants, since table names are different.

Thinking about customers which share schema, tables, etc. but need to be handled differently requires some additional effort; pretty much all of the tools around SQL Server assume that you care about things at the table, filegroup, or database level.

Basics Of Backups

Kevin Hill has a Youtube video on the basics of backups:

You’ll want to go full screen to see what’s going on.  This video is targeted at non-DBAs, but give it a watch anyway…I can take the heckling!

If you want to keep down the video path, Sean McCown had a series of user group meetings on creating backups, syntax, tuning backups, restoring backups, etc.

Backups To Azure

Andy Mallon shows how to move your backups up to Azure Blob Storage:

Geographically-redundant storage, on a cool access tier currently costs about $0.02/GB. That’s a fraction of what it would cost you to have it on your NAS, let alone having multiple geographically redundant copies, and the effort to set up and maintain your copy to off-site.

And up to a certain size, it’s faster to retrieve the backups from Azure than calling the off-site storage company.

Using DBATools For Backups And Restores

Chrissy LeMaire talks about the dbatools Powershell suite and its cmdlets related to backups and restorations:

Restore-SqlBackupFromDirectory is super useful in a pinch, too, but it’s not quite fleshed out to our standards, so it doesn’t have a corresponding webpage. We expect this will be renamed by the next release.

Again, I usually have all the docs for all of our newly released commands, but I was trynna make it for #tsql2sday.

Check out her post, and then check out dbatools.

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