Ditching IsNumeric()

Phil Factor on the IsNumeric() function:

IsNumeric() is actually answering the question ‘Can this string be converted or ‘cast’ to a numeric datatype by SQL Server?’ It is pretty good at getting this answer right but it doesn’t tell you which datatype. It also isn’t interested in such things as overflow.

This problem of IsNumeric() was solved in SQL Server 2012. There was no way of morphing IsNumeric() intro something more valuable, so Try_Cast(), Try_Parse(), and Try_Convert() were introduced. The introduction of these system functions really solve the problem, unless you are still on earlier versions than SQL Server 2012. I’ll show how to do the same thing in previous versions of SQL Server, and demonstrates one or two tricks you can do with these functions.

I’ll stick with the post-2012 version, please.

Building Random Number Ranges

Kevin Feasel

2017-06-26

T-SQL

David Fowler shows how to generate a random number for each record in a result set:

Hmmmmm…. It looks like we’ve got the same number for every person, that wasn’t what we wanted.  And that’s my issue with RAND(), it’ll give you a different random number every time it runs but if run as part of a query it’ll always return the same number for every row returned.

So what else can we do?  We’ll there is something that gives us a ‘random’ value for every row in the query and that’s our good old friend NEWID().  Let’s try the same query but this time we’ll swap RAND() with NEWID().

One major use case for this is sampling data sets for model training and testing:  if you pull from a range of 1-10, you could perhaps train against 1-5, cross-validate against 6-7, and test against 8-10.  Doing this instead of TOP X% reduces the likelihood of sampling bias.

Calculating Relative Risk In T-SQL

Mala Mahadevan explains how to calculate relative risk using T-SQL:

In this post we will explore a common statistical term – Relative Risk, otherwise called Risk Factor. Relative Risk is a term that is important to understand when you are doing comparative studies of two groups that are different in some specific way. The most common usage of this is in drug testing – with one group that has been exposed to medication and one group that has not. Or , in comparison of two different medications with two groups with each exposed to a different one.

Read on for an example of a statistical formula calculation which might actually be easier in T-SQL than R.

Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel Test

Mala Mahadevan explains the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test, with two parts up so far.  First, her data set:

Below is the script to create the table and dataset I used. This is just test data and not copied from anywhere.

Second, an introduction to the test itself and solutions in R and T-SQL:

This test is an extension of the Chi Square test I blogged of earlier. This is applied when we have to compare two groups over several levels and comparison may involve a third variable.
Let us consider a cohort study as an example – we have two medications A and B to treat asthma. We test them on a randomly selected batch of 200 people. Half of them receive drug A and half of them receive drug B. Some of them in either half develop asthma and some have it under control. The data set I have used can be found here. The summarized results are as below.

This series is not yet complete, so stay tuned.

The REVERSE Function

John Morehouse explains what the REVERSE function is and why it can be useful:

Recently I had a conversation with a colleague that wasn’t aware of the REVERSE function in SQL Server.  I had sent them a code snippet and they inquired as to what the purpose of the function was.  Essentially, this function that reverses any string value.

For example, the phrase:

The brown dog jumped over the lazy fox

reversed looks like this

xof yzal eht revo depmuj god nworb ehT

Read on to see a good example of when you might use REVERSE.

Check Those Aliases

Kevin Feasel

2017-06-02

T-SQL

Erik Darling warns you about accidentally using the wrong alias in a query:

People will often tell you to clearly alias your tables, and they’re right. It will make them more readable and understandable to whomever has to read your code next, puzzling over the 52 self joins and WHERE clause that starts off with 1 = 2. It can also help solve odd performance problems.

Take this query, for instance.

This isn’t just for subqueries; even simple joins can go haywire when you accidentally use the wrong alias and both tables happen to have the same column name.

Building Newlines In SQL Scripts

Shane O’Neill engages in wacky newline misadventures:

GO is a special little guy. It’s not exactly T-SQL. It’s a way of telling the SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS) to send everything before it, from the beginning of the script or the preceding GO, to the SQL Server instance.

If you read the documents, the main point to take away is…

A Transact-SQL statement cannot occupy the same line as a GO command. However, the line can contain comments.

The problem turns out to be a little trickier than you’d first imagine.  Also, after reading this post, I think it’s lunchtime…

Fisher’s Exact Test

Mala Mahadevan explains Fisher’s Exact Test and provides examples in T-SQL and R:

The decision rule in two sample tests of hypothesis depends on three factors :
1 Whether the test is upper, lower or two tailed (meaning the comparison is greater, lesser or both sides of gender and speaker count)
2 The level of significance or degree of accuracy needed,
3 The form of test statistic.
Our test here is to just find out if gender and speaker count are related so it is a two tailed test. The level of significance we can use is the most commonly used 95% which is also the default in R for Fischer’s Test. The form of the test statistic is P value. So our decision rule would be that gender and speaker category are related if P value is less than 0.05.

Click through for the R code followed by a code sample which should explain why you don’t want to do it in T-SQL.

Generating Comma-Delimited Strings

Shane O’Neill has a good reason to upgrade to SQL Server 2017, which is not having to deal with FOR XML PATH hacks anymore:

Commas are all the rage nowadays:

There are a fair number of questions nowadays about returning data from a database in a comma separated string. Sure the application should probably do that but hey, database servers are expensive, why not get some bang for your bucks!

Protip:  I use the colon as a separator because sometimes commas will get stuck in the Ethernet cable.

Understanding CROSS APPLY

Andy Levy has a T-SQL programming breakthrough:

Finally, this week I had a breakthrough. I was working on updating a bunch of data but it was breaking on a small subset of that data. In this case, I was attempting to JOIN two tables on fields that should have been INTs, but in a very small number of cases one side was using a comma-delimited string. The user told me that someone else had done these updates in the past and didn’t encounter the problem I was having (so I knew that it was something i was doing “wrong”), but given that it was only a handful of broken updates she was OK with manually doing the updates (we were scripting it because we were updating potentially tens of thousands of records).

I am not OK with manually fixing this in the future. I wanted to know how the other DBA had done it before. I dug into some history and found CROSS APPLY. My nemesis. I was determined to figure out how to use it this time.

The APPLY operator is extremely powerful in the right set of circumstances.  Andy shows the “classic” use case, but there are a number of other uses for the operator.

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