Stream-To-Stream Joins In Spark

Ayush Tiwari shows how to join a pair of streams in Apache Spark 2.3:

In Spark 2.3, it added support for stream-stream joins, i.e, we can join two streaming Datasets/DataFrames and in this blog we are going to see how beautifully spark now give support for joining the two streaming dataframes.

I this example, I am going to use

Apache Spark 2.3.0
Apache Kafka 0.11.0.1
Scala 2.11.8

Click through for the demo.

Visualization Over Kafka And KSQL

Shant Hovsepian shows off a data visualization tool which can read Kafka Streams data:

KSQL is a game-changer not only for application developers but also for non-technical business users. How? The SQL interface opens up access to Kafka data to analytics platforms based on SQL. Business analysts who are accustomed to non-coding, drag-and-drop interfaces can now apply their analytical skills to Kafka. So instead of continually building new analytics outputs due to evolving business requirements, IT teams can hand a comprehensive analytics interface directly to the business analysts. Analysts get a self-service environment where they can independently build dashboards and applications.

Arcadia Data is a Confluent partner that is leading the charge for integrating visual analytics and BI technology directly with KSQL. We’ve been working to combine our existing analytics stack with KSQL to provide a platform that requires no complicated new skills for your analysts to visualize streaming data. Just as they will create semantic layers, build dashboards, and deploy analytical applications on batch data, they can now do the same on streaming data. Real-time analytics and visualizations for business users have largely been a misnomer until now. For example, some architectures enabled visualizations for end users by staging Kafka data into a separate data store, which added latency. KSQL removes that latency to let business users see the most recent data directly in Kafka and react immediately.

Click through for a couple repos and demos.

Push-Based Alerting With Kafka Streams

Robin Moffatt shows how to take syslog data and create a notification app using Python and Kafka Streams:

Now we can query from it and show the aggregate window timestamp alongside the result:

ksql> SELECT ROWTIME, TIMESTAMPTOSTRING(ROWTIME, 'yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss'), \HOST, INVALID_LOGIN_COUNT \FROM INVALID_USERS_LOGINS_PER_HOST;1521644100000 | 2018-03-21 14:55:00 | rpi-03 | 11521646620000 | 2018-03-21 15:37:00 | rpi-03 | 21521649080000 | 2018-03-21 16:18:00 | rpi-03 | 11521649260000 | 2018-03-21 16:21:00 | rpi-03 | 41521649320000 | 2018-03-21 16:22:00 | rpi-03 | 21521649080000 | 2018-03-21 16:38:00 | rpi-03 | 2

In the above query I’m displaying the aggregate window start time, ROWTIME (which is epoch), and converting it also to a display string, using TIMESTAMPTOSTRING. We can use this to easily query the stream for a given window of interest. For example, for the window beginning at 2018-03-21 16:21:00 we can see there were four invalid user login attempts. We can easily check the source data for this, using the ROWTIME in the above output for the window (16:21 – 16:22) as the bounds for the predicate:

It’s a very interesting use case.

Spark Architecture: The Spark Streaming Receiver

Oleksii Yermolenko gives us an overview of the Receiver object in Spark Streaming:

The key component of Spark streaming application is called Receiver. It is responsible for opening new connections with the sources, listening events from them and aggregating incoming data within the memory. If receiver’s worker node is running out of memory, it starts using disk storage for persistence operations. But this negatively impacts the overall application’s performance.

All incoming data is first aggregated within receiver into chunks called Blocks. After preconfigured interval of time called batchInterval Spark does logical aggregation of these blocks into another entity called Batch. Batch has links to all blocks formed by receivers and uses this information for generation of RDD. This is the main Spark’s entity which is used by the engine for the operations upon the data. Normally RDD would consist of a number of partitions where each partition would reference the block generated by the receiver on the start stage. Streaming application can have lots of receivers located at different physical nodes, so the actual data would be distributed across the cluster from the start. Batch interval is global for the whole application and is defined on the stage of creation of Streaming Context. Block generation interval is a receiver based property which could be defined through the configuration of  spark.streaming.blockInterval property. By default blocks would be generated every 200ms but you can tune this property according to the nature of your data.

Read the whole thing, which includes some tips on design.

Filtering On Kafka Streams

Robin Moffatt has a new series showing how to use Kafka Streams for dealing with syslog data:

syslog is one of those ubiquitous standards on which much of modern computing runs. Built into operating systems such as Linux, it’s also commonplace in networking and IoT devices like IP cameras. It provides a way for streaming log messages, along with metadata such as the source host, severity of the message, and so on. Sometimes the target is simply a local logfile, but more often it’s a centralised syslog server which in turn may log or process the messages further.

As a high-performance, distributed streaming platform, Apache Kafka® is a great tool for centralised ingestion of syslog data. Since Apache Kafka also persists data and supports native stream processing we don’t need to land it elsewhere before we can utilise the data. You can stream syslog data into Kafka in a variety of ways, including through Kafka Connect for which there is a dedicated syslog plugin.

In this post, we’re going to see how KSQL can be used to process syslog messages as they arrive in realtime.

Check it out.

Continuous Processing Mode With Spark Structured Streaming

Joseph Torres, et al, explain how continuous processing mode works with Apache Spark 2.3’s structured streaming:

Suppose we want to build a real-time pipeline to flag fraudulent credit card transactions. Ideally, we want to identify and deny a fraudulent transaction as soon as the culprit has swiped his/her credit card. However, we don’t want to delay legitimate transactions as that would annoy customers. This leads to a strict upper bound on the end-to-end processing latency of our pipeline. Given that there are other delays in transit, the pipeline must process each transaction within 10-20 ms.

Let’s try to build this pipeline in Structured Streaming. Assume that we have a user-defined function “isPaymentFlagged” that can identify the fraudulent transactions. To minimize the latency, we’ll use a 0 second processing time trigger indicating that Spark should start each micro batch as fast as it can with no delays.

They also explain how this newer model differs from the prior model of collecting events in microbatches.

Joining Multiple Types Of Data With KSQL

Robin Moffatt has an example where he enriches streaming CSV data with information stored in MySQL:

This is a continuous query that executes in the background until explicitly terminated by the user. In effect, these are stream processing applications, and all we need to create them is SQL! Here all we’ve done is an enrichment (joining two sets of data), but we could easily add predicates to the data (simply include a WHERE clause), or even aggregations.

You can see which queries are running with the SHOW QUERIES; statement. All queries will pause if the KSQL server stops, and restart automagically when the KSQL server starts again.

The DESCRIBE EXTENDED command can be used to see information about the derived stream such as the one created above. As well as simply the columns involved, we can see information about the underlying topic, and run-time stats such as the number of messages processed and the timestamp of the most recent one.

It’s pretty easy to do; click through to see just how easy.

Securing KSQL

Yeva Byzek shows the methods available to secure a Kafka Streams application:

To connect to a secured Kafka cluster, Kafka client applications need to provide their security credentials. In the same way, we configure KSQL such that the KSQL servers are authenticated and authorized, and data communication is encrypted when communicating with the Kafka cluster. We can configure KSQL for:

Read the whole thing if you’re thinking about using Kafka Streams.

Streaming ETL In Practice Using KSQL

Robin Moffatt builds an example of streaming ETL using Oracle, GoldenGate, and Kafka:

So in this post I’m going to show an example of what streaming ETL looks like in practice. I’m replacing batch extracts with event streams, and batch transformation with in-flight transformation of these event streams. We’ll take a stream of data from a transactional system built on Oracle, transform it, and stream it into Elasticsearch to land the results to, but your choice of datastore is up to you—with Kafka’s Connect API you can stream the data to almost anywhere! Using KSQL we’ll see how to filter streams of events in real-time from a database, how to join between events from two database tables, and how to create rolling aggregates on this data.

It’s a very useful example.

User-Defined Functions In KSQL

Kai Waehner demonstrates building a user-defined function for Kafka Streams:

As you can see, the full implementation is just a few lines of Java code. In general, you need to implement the logic between receiving input and returning output of the UDF in the evaluate()method. You also need to implement exception handling (e.g. invalid input arguments) where applicable. The init() method is empty in this case, but could initialise any required object instances.

Note that this UDF has state: dateFormat can be null or already initialized. However, no worries. You do not have to manage the scope as Kafka Streams (and therefore KSQL) threads are independent of each other. So this won’t cause any issues.

Click through for the entire process.

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