The secondary nodes may be configured using asynchronous or synchronous commit. With asynchronous commit, transaction considered to be committed and all locks were released when COMMIT log record is hardened on the primary node. SQL Server sends COMMIT record to secondary node; however, it does not wait for the confirmation that the record had been hardened in the log there.
This behavior changes when you use synchronous commit as shown in Figure 1. In this mode, SQL Server does not consider transaction to be committed until it receives the confirmation that COMMIT log record is hardened in the log on the secondary node. The transaction on primary will remain active with all locks held in place until this confirmation is received. The session on primary is suspended with HADR_SYNC_COMMIT wait type.
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