Translating this back to technical terms, the root cause of actual SQL injection vulnerabilities is a front-end program (often, but not always, a web application) that allows the user to enter data, forms a query by concatenating that data into pre-made query strings, and sends the result to the backend database server.
Once you know the root cause, the fix becomes rather obvious.
When I explain SQL injection, I like to explain it using two concepts: code versus data and technology boundaries. Ideally, your code is separate from your data, and within a single technology (e.g., in that .NET web app), that’s typically the case. But when you start to traverse boundaries, it’s convenient (and wrong!) to combine code and data together to pass everything across as a single stream of information. Parameterization is the way of keeping code and data separate as you cross those boundaries. Your data isn’t code and your code isn’t data and conflating the two is how attackers can inject arbitrary code into your system.
Incidentally, technology boundaries can happen within a single product, too: dynamic SQL is an example of this.