Erin Stellato gives us some helpful tips on Query Store:
If you are trying to execute an ALTER DATABASE command to change a Query Store option (e.g. turn it off, change a setting) and it is blocked, take note of the blocking session_id and what that session_id is executing. If you are trying to execute this ALTER command right after a failover or restart, you are probably blocked by the Query Store data loading.
As a reminder, when a database with Query Store enabled starts up, it loads data from the Query Store internal tables into memory (this is an optimization to make specific capabilities of Query Store complete quickly). In some cases this is a small amount of data, in other cases, it’s larger (potentially a few GB), and as such, it can take seconds or minutes to load. I have seen this take over 30 minutes to load for a very large Query Store (over 50GB in size).
Erin has a story which ties this together, so check that out.