The problems come with uncommon values. If you are pseudonymizing a medical database that is required for research purposes on people with potentially embarrassing diseases, and it appears on the dark web, anyone with a rare or unusual surname or first-name comes up on the list, so the shuffle doesn’t help the privacy of Fortescue Ceresole, or whatever his name may be.
If you are spoofing data entirely, you don’t necessarily have this problem because your constructed value will have no relationship to the original value. If it comes from a list of common names or if you randomly create a name ‘Thomas’, it will have no relationship to the original names in the database as long as you did things correctly and shuffle the list. Although a Markov string can produce an identical name that is uncommon, it can be eliminated from the list by an outer join with the original data.
After you shuffle data, you ‘zip’ it. Zipping lists is something you come across in procedural programming, and Linq has a good example. A .net array has an order, and all you are doing is to join by the order of the element in the list. If you randomize that order, you get a shuffle.
Read on for an example using the AdventureWorks Person.Person table.