The SQLOS scheduler exists in the cracks between user tasks. As we’re well aware, in order for scheduling to happen at all, it is necessary for tasks to run scheduler-friendly code every now and again. In practice this means either calling methods which have the side effect of checking your quantum mileage and yielding if needed, or explicitly yielding yourself when the guilt gets too much.
Now from the viewpoint of the user task, the experience of yielding is no different than the experience of calling any long-running CPU-intensive function: You call a function and it eventually returns. The real difference is that the CPU burned between the call and its return was spent on one or more other threads, while the current thread went lifeless for a bit. But you don’t know that, because you were asleep at the time!
Definitely read the whole thing.