The March 2017 update of Power BI Desktop comes with a preview of Themes. Right now it is in its simplest of forms: You manually create a JSON file that has a very few attributes that can set basic color themes to your reports. So all you have to do is create file that looks like this:
Click through for an example. This isn’t a true fix for the lack of Color Vision Deficiency support, but you can plug in safe colors (for example, this article includes some) and skirt the issue until there’s real support.