Immutable Servers

Diana Tkachenko describes a pattern for reducing “prod doesn’t look like stage” types of errors:

Immutable server pattern makes use of disposable components for everything that makes up an application that is not data. This means that once the application is deployed, nothing changes on the server – no scripts are run on it, no configuration is done on it. The packaged code and any deploy scripts is essentially baked into the server. No outside process is able to modify the contents after the server has been deployed. For example, if you were using Docker containers to deploy your code, everything the application needs would be in the Docker image, which you then use to create and run a container. You cannot modify the image once it’s been created, and if any changes do need to take place, you would create a new image and work with that one.

In our case, we use AWS Amazon Machine Images (AMIs) to accomplish the same thing. We make heavy use of Amazon Linux machines, which are Redhat-based, and thus package the code into RPMs[2]. The RPMs define all the dependencies for running the application, the code itself, and any startup scripts to run on bootup. The RPM is then installed on a clean base image of Amazon Linux, and an image is taken, resulting in an AMI. This AMI is synonymous with “immutable server” – it cannot be changed once it is created. The AMI is then deployed into an Auto Scaling Group(ASG) and attached to the Elastic Load Balancer (ELB). In this post, I’ll guide you through for a closer look at every step of this Immutable Server deploy pipeline. I’ll then go into how and why we embedded planned failures into this system. At the end, I’ll share the insights we’ve gained into the pros and cons of deploying in this way.

This is a very interesting concept.  I’ve heard of no-patch servers (where, instead of patching live servers, you spin up a new VM with the operating system updates and spin down the old one), but this takes the idea one step further.

Related Posts

Dealing With International Addresses

Danielle Grenier shows us how Etsy handles internationalization of addresses: It starts off easy – you fill in your name, your street, your apartment number, and then you reach the field labelled “Post Town”. What is a “Post Town”? Huh. Next you see “County”. Well, you know what a county is, but since when do […]

Read More

Natural Keys?

Steve Jones wonders if we should give up on natural primary key constraints: One of the things I think is important in modeling your particular entity is including a primary key (PK). In my DevOps talk I stress this, as I’d rather most attendees come away thinking a PK is important as their first takeaway […]

Read More

Categories

September 2016
MTWTFSS
« Aug Oct »
 1234
567891011
12131415161718
19202122232425
2627282930