Particularly in Synapse, there are even no global parameters like in Azure Data Factory.
When you want to move your development to another environment, typically CI/CDs pipelines are used. These pipelines consume an ARM template together with its parameter file to create a workspace in a target environment. The parameters can be overriding in the CD pipeline as explain here: https://techcommunity.microsoft.com/t5/data-architecture-blog/ci-cd-in-azure-synapse-analytics-part-4-the-release-pipeline/ba-p/2034434
Even so, I have not found a proper way to change the values of a pipeline parameter (the same for data flows and datasets parameters). I saw some custom parameters manipulation to set the default value of a parameter and then deploy it without any value, or even JSON manipulation with PowerShell (the dark side for me).
Read on for an alternative solution which does the job well.