Bucketizing date and time data involves organizing data in groups representing fixed intervals of time for analytical purposes. Often the input is time series data stored in a table where the rows represent measurements taken at regular time intervals. For example, the measurements could be temperature and humidity readings taken every 5 minutes, and you want to group the data using hourly buckets and compute aggregates like average per hour. Even though time series data is a common source for bucket-based analysis, the concept is just as relevant to any data that involves date and time attributes and associated measures. For example, you might want to organize sales data in fiscal year buckets and compute aggregates like the total sales value per fiscal year. In this article, I cover two methods for bucketizing date and time data. One is using a function called DATE_BUCKET, which at the time of writing is only available in Azure SQL Edge. Another is using a custom calculation that emulates the DATE_BUCKET function, which you can use in any version, edition, and flavor of SQL Server and Azure SQL Database.
DATE_BUCKET() is something I’d like to see in the next version of SQL Server on-premises. There are some peculiarities to how it works and behavior isn’t always exactly what you’d expect, but it does accomplish what it sets out to do.