Erik Darling has a good list of schema-related issues:
Something is broken in the way that you store data.
You’re overloading things, and you’re going to hit big performance problems when your database grows past puberty.
Most of what he’s describing in this post is a failure of atomicity, which implies a failure to achieve first normal form. Mind you, all of these functions are perfectly reasonable as part of data loading, and many of them are perfectly reasonable in the SELECT clause of a query (though that’s still a sign of failure of atomicity), but once you start throwing them into the WHERE clause, we’ve got problems.