In Synapse Analytics, several database objects (such as, compiled procedure, plan, …) will be cached in some conditions.
For instance, CCI tables (see my previous post “Azure Synapse Analytics : Choose Right Index and Partition” for CCI) will locally cache the recently-used columnstore segments on distributed compute nodes, which is called columnar cache. The local disk-based cache is used on Gen2 caching.
You cannot manually control these caching activities. (These are automatically applied to improve performance in Synapse Analytics.) See team blog “Adaptive caching powers Azure SQL Data Warehouse performance gains” for underlying architecture which improves caching in Gen2.
Dedicated SQL Pool behavior is close enough to on-premises SQL Server that it’s easy to expect everything to be the same, but there are some nuances.