I briefly reviewed the documentation written by Microsoft concerning the appearance of delta stores. Here’s a quote:
Rows go to the deltastore when they are:
Inserted with the INSERT INTO VALUES statement.
At the end of a bulk load and they number less than 102,400.
Updated. Each update is implemented as a delete and an insert.
There are also a few mentions of how partitioning can lead to the creation of multiple delta stores from a single insert. It seems as if the document is incomplete or a little misleading, but I admit that I didn’t exhaustively review everything. After all, Microsoft hides columnstore documentation all over the place.
This is a great compendium of ways in which you can shoot yourself in the foot with clustered columnstore indexes.