First of all, note that Estimated Number of Rows is 10 000 now, which is correct and equals Actual Number of Rows. Due to the correct estimate the optimizer decided that there are enough rows to benefit from a partial (local/global) aggregation and introduced a partial Hash aggregate before the join.
If you take a Profiler, enable events SP:StmtStarting, SP:StmtCompleted, SQL:StmtStarting, SQL:StmtCompleted and run the query without and with a TF, you’ll see what does it actually mean “interleaved” in terms of the execution sequence.
During the regular execution the query starts executing, then the function is executed, the query continues execution and finishes the execution. We see the following event sequence:
This is a very thorough post, but if you have multi-statement TVFs, you absolutely want to read it.