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Using OLS To Fit Rational Functions

Srini Kumar and Bob Horton show how to use the lm function to fit functions using the Pade Approximation:

Now we have a form that lm can work with. We just need to specify a set of inputs that are powers of x (as in a traditional polynomial fit), and a set of inputs that are y times powers of x. This may seem like a strange thing to do, because we are making a model where we would need to know the value of y in order to predict y. But the trick here is that we will not try to use the fitted model to predict anything; we will just take the coefficients out and rearrange them in a function. The fit_pade function below takes a dataframe with x and y values, fits an lm model, and returns a function of x that uses the coefficents from the model to predict y:

The lm function does more than just fit straight lines.