Allan Hirt notes that you need KB2919355 installed before you can install SQL Server 2016 on Windows Server 2012 R2 or Windows 8.1:
In my case, I created a new VM with a fresh installation of Windows Server 2012 R2. I also ran Windows Update to ensure it had everything Windows Server thought it required. Figure 3 reflects this status.
It’s never quite as easy as “just run this patch,” so do read on for another gotcha.