The following are the primary changes which will impact behavior of checkpoint in SQL Server 2016.
Indirect checkpoint is the default behavior for new databases created in SQL Server 2016. Databases which were upgraded in place or restored from a previous version of SQL Server will use the previous automatic checkpoint behavior unless explicitly altered to use indirect checkpoint.
When performing a checkpoint SQL Server considers the response time of the I/O’s and adjusts the amount of outstanding I/O in response to response times exceeding a certain threshold. In versions prior to SQL Server 2016 this threshold was 20ms. In SQL Server 2016 the threshold is now 50ms. This means that SQL Server 2016 will wait longer before backing off the amount of outstanding I/O it is issuing.
The SQL Server engine will consolidate modified pages into a single physical transfer if the data pages are contiguous at the physical level. In prior versions, the max size for a transfer was 256KB. Starting with SQL Server 2016 the max size of a physical transfer has been increased to 1MB potentially making the physical transfers more efficient. Keep in mind these are based on continuity of the pages and hence workload dependent.
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