Encryption In Progress Stuck

Arun Sirpal tried to enable Transparent Data Encryption but his database was stuck in the “Encryption in progress” status:

My ZoraDB database clearly stuck in an encryption in progress state.

With the database being small the encryption process should not take long at all, I was confused.

I then decided to try and turn off the encryption.

Read on for the solution.

Server-Level Database Permissions

Kenneth Fisher shows off some special server-level permissions:

So what’s our shiny new permissions toy? Well, over time we have been getting more and more server level permissions that affect database level objects. A lot of these can be really useful and I’m hoping we will see more and more of them.

Click through for a couple helpful tables of permissions.

Managing Azure SQL Database Firewall Rules

Cedric Charlier shows how to manage Azure SQL Database firewall rules from within Management Studio:

When you create a new Azure database, you usually need to open the firewall to remotely administrate or query this database with SSMS. An option is to create rules from the Azure Portal. It’s surely a convenient way to do it when you create a database but I prefer to keep a minimum of tools and when the Azure portal is not open, I prefer to not have to open it just to define a few firewall rules.

Opening the firewall with SSMS is a kind of chicken and eggs problem: to connect to your database/server, you need to open the firewall. Hopefully, SSMS has a great suite of screens to call the underlying API of Azure Portal and open the firewall for the computer running SSMS.

Cedric shows off sp_delete_firewall_rule but there’s also a corresponding sp_set_firewall_rule.

Always Encrypted Data And SSMS

Justin Goodwin shows how to view Always Encrypted data from within Management Studio:

I am now able to view the encrypted data. Why is this?

Because I am connecting to the database from the database server, I have access to the Encryption Certificate that was generated. I can verify this by opening certmgr.msc and browsing to Personal -> Certificates:

Justin then goes on to show what happens when you don’t have access to the certificate and how to provide access to another machine.

Azure Disk Encryption

Melissa Coates configures Azure Disk Encryption for an already-existing Azure VM:

As I discussed in my previous blog post, I opted to use Azure Disk Encryption for my virtual machines in Azure, rather than Storage Service Encryption. Azure Disk Encryption utilizes Bitlocker inside of the VM. Enabling Azure Disk Encryption involves these Azure services:

  • Azure Active Directory for a service principal
  • Azure Key Vault for a KEK (key encryption key) which wraps around the BEK (bitlocker encryption key)
  • Azure Virtual Machine (IaaS)

Following are 4 scripts which configures encryption for an existing VM. I initially had it all as one single script, but I purposely separated them. Now that they are modular, if you already have a Service Principal and/or a Key Vault, you can skip those steps. I have my ‘real’ version of these scripts stored in an ARM Visual Studio project (same logic, just with actual names for the Azure services). These PowerShell templates go along with other ARM templates to serve as source control for our Azure infrastructure.

The Powershell scripts are straightforward and clear, so check them out.

Azure VM Encryption

Melissa Coates looks at different encryption methods available for Azure Virtual Machines:

Initially I opted for Storage Service Encryption due to its sheer simplicity. This is done by enabling encryption when you initially provision the storage account. After having set it up, I had proceeded onto other configuration items, one of which is setting up backups via the Azure Recovery Vault. Turns out that encrypted backups in the Recovery Vault are not (yet?) supported for VMs encrypted with Storage Service Encryption (as of Feb 2017).

Next I decided to investigate Disk Encryption because it supports encrypted backups in the Recovery Vault. It’s more complex to set up because you need a Service Principal in AAD, as well as Azure Key Vault integration. (More details on that in my next post.)

Click through for a point-by-point comparison between the two methods.

Replication Error When Listing Directory Contents

Andrew Peterson troubleshoots a replication issue:

You’re trying to setup SQL Server Replication on a server, and it fails. Looking thru the error message you find this:

        An exception occurred while executing a Transact-SQL statement or batch.
        (Microsoft.SQLServer.ConnectionInfo)

        Destination path ………….is not valid. Unable to list directory contents. Specify a valid
            destination path.
            Changed database context to ‘master’. (Microsoft SQL Server, Error: 14430)

Read on for the solution.

Encryption In ElasticMapReduce

Sai Sriparasa shows how to enable encryption in an ElasticMapReduce cluster:

In this post, I go through the process of setting up the encryption of data at multiple levels using security configurations with EMR. Before I dive deep into encryption, here are the different phases where data needs to be encrypted.

Data at rest

  • Data residing on Amazon S3—S3 client-side encryption with EMR
  • Data residing on disk—the Amazon EC2 instance store volumes (except boot volumes) and the attached Amazon EBS volumes of cluster instances are encrypted using Linux Unified Key System (LUKS)

Data in transit

  • Data in transit from EMR to S3, or vice versa—S3 client side encryption with EMR

  • Data in transit between nodes in a cluster—in-transit encryption via Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) for MapReduce and Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL) for Spark shuffle encryption

  • Data being spilled to disk or cached during a shuffle phase—Spark shuffle encryption or LUKS encryption

Turns out this is rather straightforward.

SLEEP_BPOOL_FLUSH

Arun Sirpal investigates a slow backup with an interesting wait stat:

You get this wait type when the checkpoint process realizes that it’s saturating the I/O subsystem. (https://www.sqlskills.com/help/waits/sleep_bpool_flush/), so it seemed that my backup could not even issue a checkpoint successfully. With that thinking I decided to do a manual checkpoint which just made the problem worse.

Read on for more details.

Security As A Metaphor

Kevin Hill explains some of the basics of security using an extended metaphor:

Imagine if you will, that you own a house.

Because you are the owner, you have a key to the house.   You can do anything you want in any room of the house.  You decide who else gets keys, and what they can do inside.  We’ll assume your significant other also has a key and equal rights to all rooms.

Read on for the rest of the story.

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